The windmill was used mainly to pump water. The height of the windmill tower varies from 10-feet to 100-feet; it needs to be higher than other nearby buildings or hills. Blades - called "sails" - are mounted on the top wheel at an angle to catch the wind and turn when the wind blows. When the wheel spins, it turns a long shaft which activates the machinery - such as a pump - below. During high winds, a 'governor' keeps the shaft from moving too quickly which would break the pump.
Our Aeromotor Windmill.
Our Aeromotor Windmill.
The use of the windmill is confined almost exclusively to the pumping of water. Sufficient water should be stored to last at least three days. The windmill is used in a limited way for grinding feed and for running machines, such as grindstones, lathes, shellers, etc., if one is prepared to do the work when the wind is blowing.
The foundation of the tower posts are usually of concrete, set at least five feet in the ground. Wood towers were usually replaced with metal past the 1890s. The height of the tower varies from 10 ft. to 100 ft., as it should be high enough to raise the wheel above the level of all objects such as buildings, windbreaks, and hills, within 500 ft. of the mill. The wheel consists of a steel framework upon which are mounted the sails, which may be of either wood or steel. The sails are set at an angle to the plane of the wheel. This angle varies from twenty to thirty degrees and is known as the angle of weather. There is a wide variation in the width of sail, though the wider sail, measuring some twelve inches seems to be more generally used.
Motion is transmitted from the shaft to the pump rod either directly through a pitman-wheel connection, when it is known as a direct connected mill, or indirectly, through spur gears, when it is known as a hack-geared mill.
Since a pump should not be operated at a faster rate than forty strokes per minute, it is very necessary to have some device on the wheel that will keep the speed within a proper limit. Such a device is called a governor and operates in such a way as to turn the wheel toward or away from the plane perpendicular to the wind's velocity, thus exposing more or less surface to the driving force of the wind. This was perfected by 1854. Automatic regulators may be attached to any mill by means of which, through a float connection with a near by tank, it may he automatically thrown out of gear when tank is filled and thrown in gear when the tank is empty.
Windmills were mostly replaced with gasoline or electric pumps in the early 1900's. They are still used in regions without power, and can be used now to generate electric power.
This is a Aeromotor Windmill. It is a back geared mill and our other windmill has a pitman arm. The wind wheel is turned parallel to the tail to take it out of the wind, as it's pumping is not needed at this time. Aeromotor has continuously manufactured windmills since 1888 when it introduced the all-steel windmill. In 1916 Aeromotor created the "Auto-oiled" windmill design; with every moving part running in a bath of oil and requiring an oil change only once a year, instead of weekly oiling. It was the most widely sold of all makes.